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    William Aikman

    artist

    24 October 1682 - 7 June 1731

    William Aikman was a Scottish painter. He traveled widely in Italy, the Ottoman Empire, and Greece.

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    Jean-Jacques Amelot de Chaillou

    administrator

    30 April 1689 - 7 May 1749

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    Colonel Armiagas

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    Nicolas Baudin

    scientist, ship captain

    17 February 1754 - 16 September 1803

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    Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais

    playwright

    24 January 1732 - 18 May 1799

    See RouteSee Network

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    Giovanni Battista Belzoni

    antiquary

    5 November 1778 - 3 December 1823

    See RouteSee Network

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    Mary Berry

    author

    March 1763 - 20 November 1852

    After the death of Mary's uncle, Ferguson, who left very little money to her family, when she was eighteen, Mary convinced her father to sell their house at Chiswick and travel the Continent. In Florence Mary had a most important epiphany, "I soon found that I had to lead those who ought to have led me; that I must be a protecting mother, instead of a gay companion, to my sister; and to my father a guide and monitor, instead of finding in him a tutor and protector." From that moment onward, she promised to herself to use "the whole powers of [her] mind" to do what she knew was best and to learn of all things brilliant and distinguished and to distinguish herself.

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    Antonio Maria Biorrioni

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    Napoléon Bonaparte

    army officer

    15 August 1769 - 5 May 1821

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    Aimé Bonpland

    scientist

    29 August 1773 - 4 May 1858

    Aimé Bonpland was a botanist who had studied medicine in Paris during the Revolution. He was Alexander von Humboldt's travel companion during the South American voyages. Bonpland returned to South American and appointed Professor of Natural history at Buenos Aires. He attempted to conduct another voyage, but was arrested and imprisoned for 9 years. After his release, he settled in Uruguay.

    See RouteSee Network

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    Louis Antoine de Bougainville

    human being

    12 November 1729 - 31 August 1811

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    Maria Amalia Teresa Bourbon, Queen Consort of France

    aristocrat

    26 April 1782 - 24 March 1866

    Queen Consort of France

    See RouteSee Network

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    John Bouverie

    antiquary

    ca. 1723 - 19 September 1805

    See RouteSee Network

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    Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin and 11th Earl of Kincardine

    diplomat, collector

    20 July 1766 - 14 November 1841

    Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin and 11th Earl of Kincardine was a Scottish nobleman and diplomat, known primarily for the removal of marbles sculptures (also known as the Elgin Marbles or the Parthenon Marbles) from the Parthenon in Athens.

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    Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington

    collector

    26 April 1694 - 3 December 1753

    Upon his father's death in 1704, Burlington inherited his title and estates. Burlington was a "gentleman" architect, building not out of professional economic necessity but as a passionate vocation. His Irish estates provided a major source of revenue for his projects, including the transformation of his suburban villa at Chiswick into a paradigm of classical architecture.

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    Francis Pierpoint Burton, 2nd baron Conyngham

    administrator

    c. 1725 - 22 May 1787

    Francis Pierpoint Burton traveled to Italy with his tutor, Alexander Scott. At Turin, his friend and fellow Irishman Lord Charlemont offered to lend him money to join an expedition to the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean). John Ingamells has noted that "Burton has been described as playing Sancho Panza to Charlemont's Quixote."

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    James Caulfeild, 1st earl of Charlemont

    administrator, administrator

    18 August 1728 - 4 August 1799

    Charlemont was educated by a succession of tutors, including Edward Murphy who would be his travel companion throughout Italy and the Eastern Mediterranean.

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    Antonio José Cavanilles

    naturalist

    16 January 1745 - 5 May 1804

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    William Chambers

    administrator

    23 February 1723 - 8 March 1796

    Sir William Chambers was a Scottish architect who worked mainly in London. After traveling throughout Italy, he settled in London in 1755. He began a successful career as an architect, and in 1769 earned the title of Comptroller of the Office Works.

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    Cornelia Chambers

    daughter

    5 July 1753 - unknown

    Cornelia was born to William Chambers and Catherine More on July 5, 1753 in Strada Felice in Rome.

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    Selina Chambers

    daughter

    late 1754-early 1755

    Selina was the second daughter of William Chambers and Catherine More.

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    Charles IV, King of Spain

    11 November 1748 - 20 January 1819

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    Humphrey Chetham

    merchant

    1680 - 1749

    As a merchant in Livorno Chetham acted as shipping agent for William Kent in 1713-15.

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    Giuseppe Chiari

    painter

    March 10 1654 - September 7 1727

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    Richard Child, 1st earl Tylney and 1st viscount Castlemaine

    administrator, patron

    February 5 1680 - March 1750

    See RouteSee Network

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    Antoine Cioia

    administrator

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    Giovanni Battista Cipriani

    draughtsman, designer

    1727 - 14 December 1785

    Cipriani trained in Florence under Iganzio Hugford. He went to Rome in 1750 where he became acquainted with travelers on the Grand Tour. In 1755, he went to London with William Chambers and Joseph Wilton where he settled until his death in 1785. He was considered one of the main contributors to the development of the Neo-classical decorative style. Some of his notable works include his restoration of Antonio Verrio's ceiling paintings at Windsor Castle and Peter Paul Reuben's ceiling at the Banqueting House in London.

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    Señor Clavijo

    administrator

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    Charles-Louis Clérisseau

    antiquary, draughtsman

    28 August 1721 - 9 January 1820

    Clérisseau was an important figure in the spread of Neoclassical architecture throughout Europe and North America. In Italy, he became acquainted with Piranesi, Winckelmann, Cardinal Alessandro Albani and other antiquarians and made hundreds of drawings of real and imaginary scenes of classical architectural, which he sold to Grand Tourists. Clérisseau was a notable, and controversial, figure associated with the development of the Neo-classical style of architecture and interior design and its dissemination throughout Europe and the United States. He trained as an architect in Paris under Germain Boffrand. He was awarded the prix de Rome in 1746 and was "pensionnaire du Roi" at the French Academy in Rome from 1749 to 1754. In 1755 Clérisseau began an association with Robert Adam, first as a teacher and later as an employee assisting him with his study of ancient architecture and decorative forms and their adaptation to new architectural style. In 1778 Clérisseau was appointed "premier architecte" and "membre honoraire de l'Académie Impériale des Arts" by Catherine the Great, and in 1781 "premier architecte de Sa Majesté." Clérisseau exhibited at the Royal Academy, England, in 1772. Clerisseau's one complete building is the gigantic Palais de Gouverneur (1776--89) in Metz.

    See RouteSee Network

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    John Robert Cozens

    painter, draughtsman

    1752 - 14 December 1797

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    Hendrik Willem Cramer-Azn

    artist

    1 April 1809 - 22 December 1874

    Cramer was a Prix de Rome (Amsterdam) winner for painting.

    See RouteSee Network

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    Francis Dashwood, 11th baron Le Despencer

    administrator

    December 1708 - 11 December 1781

    Dashwood first traveled abroad in 1726. He made several extended trips to Italy, participating in the excavations at Herculaneum. He was acquainted with Niccolini, Montesquieu and other scholars and antiquaries. While traveling to St Petersburg, stopping en route at Copenhagen, he kept a detailed diary, which offers important first-hand descriptions of both capitals at the time.

    See RouteSee Network

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    Matthieu de La Teulière

    administrator

    See RouteSee Network

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    Jean-Baptiste De Troy

    administrator

    See RouteSee Network

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    Mariano Luis de Urquijo

    administrator

    1769 - 1817

    See RouteSee Network

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    Francis Egerton, 3rd duke of Bridgewater

    21 May 1736 - 8 March 1803

    In 1753 Francis was sent on a grand tour with a tutor, Robert Wood, a renowned scholar. They stayed in Paris and Lyon, and Bridgewater began collecting art under Wood's guidance. Later in life, after building his canal and colliery businesses into an empire, Bridgewater continued building his collection, incorporating the Orléans collection of Italian paintings first put together by Cardinal Richelieu, and encouraging J. W. M. Turner.

    See RouteSee Network

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    Robert Ferguson of Raith

    administrator

    8 September 1769 - 3 December 1840

    Robert Ferguson of Raith was Mary Nisbet's lover while she was married to Thomas Bruce. Eventually, he was tried for adultery with Nisbet and the two later married. At various times, Ferguson was a Whig Member of Parliament for Fifeshire, Haddingtonshire and Kirkcaldy Burghs. When he died, Ferguson was Lord Lieutenant of the county of Fife.

    See RouteSee Network

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    Philip von Forell

    ambassador

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    Henry Fuseli

    painter

    7 February 1741 - 17 April 1825

    Henry Fuseli (born Johann Heinrich Füssli) was a Swiss painter who made the acquaintances of many prominent artists in London (1765-1770, 1779-1825) and Rome (1770-1778). While in Rome, Fuseli exerted a profound influence from within a community of artists, including George Romney, James Northcote, and Thomas Banks. His 1765 translation of Winckelmanns "Gedanken über die Nachahmung der griechischen Werke in der Malerei und Bildhauerkunst" renewed interest in the art of ancient Greece and Rome.

    See RouteSee Network

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    Henry Isaac Gervais

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    Rosa Maccetti Giagnoni

    administrator

    See RouteSee Network

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    Louis Goupy

    printmaker

    02 December 1747

    See RouteSee Network

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    Abbé Grant

    administrator

    15 August 1708 - 1 September 1784

    Abbé Grant, Roman Catholic priest, was an important liaison for British travelers in Rome, so much so that he was referred to by John Ingamells as "something of an institution." As a Roman Agent to the Scottish Catholic Mission, he spent his entire adult life in Rome. He neglected the duties of his office, however, focusing instead on serving British travelers as agent, tour guide, and sometimes personal assistant. Lord Bute later erected a monument to him in Scots College.

    See RouteSee Network

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    Cardinal de Tencin

    22 August 1679 - 2 March 1758

    See RouteSee Network

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    Domenico Guidi

    See RouteSee Network

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    Jacob Philipp Hackert

    painter

    15 September 1737 - 28 April 1807

    The German landscape painter Jacob Philipp Hackert moved extensively throughout Europe and was employed by Sir William Hamilton, Catherine the Great, Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, and Pope Pius VI. Goethe authored a biography on Hackert in 1811.

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    Gavin Hamilton

    painter

    1723 - 4 January 1798

    Gavin Hamilton was a Scottish neoclassical painter who lived in Rome for much of his life. He was perhaps more famously known for his antiquities and archeological collections. In this capacity, he undertook several excavations throughout Italy.

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    Hugh Douglas Hamilton

    artist

    ca. 1739 - 1808

    See RouteSee Network

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    Sir William Richard Hamilton

    diplomat

    31 January 1731 - 6 April 1803

    Sir William Richard Hamilton, FRS was a British antiquarian, traveller and diplomat. He was the private secretary and advisor of Thomas Bruce.

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    Thomas Hardwick

    administrator

    22 May 1752 - 16 January 1829

    Born to an architect and mason, Hardwick studied with William Chambers beginning in 1767 and entered the Royal Academy two years later. His travels took him to Paris, Lyons and in Italy, to Rome, Naples and Venice, where he took measurements of ancient buildings and ruins. Upon returning to England, he made a reputation for himself as a restorer of churches. (A winning entry for a model female prison under the Penitentiary Act 1779 as never constructed.)

    See RouteSee Network

Travel played a pivotal role in the shaping of the intellectual and artistic culture of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Europe. While capital cities such as Rome, Paris, and London served as major attractions for travelers, the increasing specialization and ease of mobility over the course of these centuries drove exploration into remote areas such as Greece, Egypt, and the Near East. Simultaneously, an interest in "national" landscapes and antiquities made infrequently trafficked local regions the focus of new forms of tourism. The ramifications of this expansion of cultural tourism during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries have been the subject of recent scholarly debates since, and Itinera offers a platform through which contemporary interests may engage with these issues.

Visualizing, understanding, and generating new insights into the changing patterns and objectives for these types of travel are the primary motivators of behind Itinera. Designed to allow scholars and students to better comprehend the interconnected phenomena of mobility, object collection, and site documentation in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Itinera is an map-based, interactive, digital resource that overlays and juxtaposes the movements of travelers alongside the objects of their study and their own creative output. Itinera therefore operates on between two central modelings. The "Travelers" section introduces a user of this site to the historical network in which individual agents existed, while the "Routes" and "Chronology" sections sketch the travels undertaken during their lifetimes.

This digital environment has been proactively developed to collect and present historical data within a richly and transparently -structured visual context. Itinera presents the opportunity for academics and enthusiasts alike to engage with the phenomena of cultural tourism through an innovative academic apparatus. These visualizations not only account for the pre-existing scholarship on individual tours, but more crucially, Itinera promotes user-centric inquiry into the creation of meaningful historical relationships among people, objects, and sites.